• Kunkle BW et al., Genome-wide linkage analyses of non-Hispanic white families identify novel loci for familial late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dement. 2016 Jan;12(1):2-10. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2015.05.020. Epub 2015 Sep 11. PMID: 26365416.

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Few high penetrance variants that explain risk in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) families have been found. METHODS: We performed genome-wide linkage and identity-by-descent (IBD) analyses on 41 non-Hispanic white families exhibiting likely dominant inheritance of LOAD, and having no mutations at known familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) loci, and a low burden of APOE ε4 alleles. RESULTS: Two-point parametric linkage analysis identified 14 significantly linked regions, including three novel linkage regions for LOAD (5q32, 11q12.2-11q14.1, and 14q13.3), one of which replicates a genome-wide association LOAD locus, the MS4A6A-MS4A4E gene cluster at 11q12.2. Five of the 14 regions (3q25.31, 4q34.1, 8q22.3, 11q12.2-14.1, and 19q13.41) are supported by strong multipoint results (logarithm of odds [LOD*] ≥1.5). Nonparametric multipoint analyses produced an additional significant locus at 14q32.2 (LOD* = 4.18). The 1-LOD confidence interval for this region contains one gene, C14orf177, and the microRNA Mir_320, whereas IBD analyses implicates an additional gene BCL11B, a regulator of brain-derived neurotrophic signaling, a pathway associated with pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. DISCUSSION: Examination of these regions after whole-genome sequencing may identify highly penetrant variants for familial LOAD.

  • Barral S et al., Linkage analyses in Caribbean Hispanic families identify novel loci associated with familial late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimers Dement. 2015 Dec;11(12):1397-406. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2015.07.487. Epub 2015 Oct 1. PMID: 26433351.

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: We performed linkage analyses in Caribbean Hispanic families with multiple late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) cases to identify regions that may contain disease causative variants. METHODS: We selected 67 LOAD families to perform genome-wide linkage scan. Analysis of the linked regions was repeated using the entire sample of 282 families. Validated chromosomal regions were analyzed using joint linkage and association. RESULTS: We identified 26 regions linked to LOAD (HLOD ≥3.6). We validated 13 of the regions (HLOD ≥2.5) using the entire family sample. The strongest signal was at 11q12.3 (rs2232932: HLODmax = 4.7, Pjoint = 6.6 × 10(-6)), a locus located ∼2 Mb upstream of the membrane-spanning 4A gene cluster. We additionally identified a locus at 7p14.3 (rs10255835: HLODmax = 4.9, Pjoint = 1.2 × 10(-5)), a region harboring genes associated with the nervous system (GARS, GHRHR, and NEUROD6). DISCUSSION: Future sequencing efforts should focus on these regions because they may harbor familial LOAD causative mutations.